French Lesson 19

Direct Object Pronouns

  • Verb does not require a preposition noun, object directly follows the verb.
    • noun replaced by direct-object pronoun (me, te, le, la, l’, nous, vous, les)
    • example: vous cherchez le metro? oui, je le cherche.
      • In this example it is << le metro >>  becomes << le >> in the response
  • Note: Common verbs that do not need a preposition is as follows: acheter, aimer, amener (to lead), choisir, consulter, faire, lire, préférer, réserver, trouver, vendre
Credit: Learn French With Frencheezi

Indirect Object Pronouns

  • Introduced by Preposition à
  • Both the prepositions and objects are replace by the indirect object pronouns: me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur
    • Q: Vous avez parlé à l’ágent? A: Oui, je lui ai parlé
Credit: Learn French With Vincent

Y

  • If the preposition à is a thing
    • preposition and it’s object are replaced by << y >>
    • << y >> also replaces a preposition of location and its objects (dans le voiture [in the car], sous la chaisse [under the table], devant la table [behind the table], etc)
    • e.g. (Q: Est-ce que la directrice a répondu à votre lettre A: Oui, elle y‘a répondu) In this example preposition à is followed by the direct object (because it is directly someones object) votre lettre, thus calling for the pronoun << y >> to be used in their place

En

  • Replaces preposition de and it’s noun object, when object is a thing.
    • When a number or expression of quantity is included, en replaces the preposition and noun, however, the expression or number is still included.
    • (e.g. Q: Elle a fait deux voyages en Canada R: C’est vrai? Elle en a fait deux.)
Credit: French Truly TV

Disjunctive Pronouns

  • When noun object of de is a person
    • preposition replaced by disjunctive pronoun: moi, toi, lui/elle, nous, vous, eux/elles
    • (e.g. Q: Vous parlez des Ricards? A: Oui, qu’est-ce que vous pensez d’eux)

Prepositions with Object Pronoun

  • noun object is a person and introduced by any preposition other then à
    • preposition remains in original position
    • person replaced by the appropriate disjunctive pronouns: moi toi, lui/elle, nous, vous, eux, elles
    • (e.g. Q: Et pour leur frère aussi? A: Oui, pour lui aussi

Position of Object Pronouns

  • placed directly before conjugated/ infinitive verb.

1st: me, te, se, nous, vous

2nd: le, la, les

3rd: lui, leur

4th: y

5th: en

  • Compound tenses:
    • past participle of the verb using avoir agrees with any direct object pronoun preceding the verb.
    • (e.g. Je les ai vues)
    • le and les objective pronouns do not contract with de or à

Object Pronouns with the Imperative

Object pronouns used with the negative imperative immediately precede the verb and follow their normal order of placement.

Ex: Ne lui en donnez pas

However, if the imperative is affirmative, the object pronouns are immediately follow the verb, and are connected by hyphens. They are placed in a specific order as follows: 1) direct object 2) indirect object 3) y and 4) en

Ex: Passe-la-moi.

Me and Te are replaced by moi and toi when they are the only or last pronoun in the hyphenated imperative.

Disjunctive Pronouns Extended

When the disjunctive pronouns are a compound subject and object, there may be more than one disjunctive pronouns or a combination of nouns and pronouns. When its a combination, the noun comes before the pronoun.

  • Nous avons invité Ally et il. (We invited Ally and him)
  • toi-êtes allés avec eux? ( Where did you go with them?)

Using a disjunctive pronoun, alongside a voice inflection, can aide in the emphasis in a single element of a sentence. The disjunctive pronoun stressing the word, can be put at the beginning or at the end.

Adding c’est or ce sont can give added emphasis. Make sure the verb that follows is agreeing in gender and number.
Nous and vous keep their subject pronouns, ils and elles are removed.

  • Moi, je n’eux ai pas vu (I didn’t see them).
  • Je n’eux ai pas vu, eux. (I didn’t see them).
  • Ce n’est pas moi qui eux ai vu (I’m not the one who seen them)

When an object is after a preposition, replace the object of any preposition with a disjunctive pronoun as long as it is not à (+ person or thing) nor de (+thing).

Additional Information

Subject pronouns need to have a verb, however, disjunctive pronouns can be used by themselves.

When on is used, soi is used as the object of a preposition.

When trying to -self/ -selves you can add -même(s) to the end of any disjunctive pronoun to reinforce it.

moi-même (myself)
toi-même (yourself)
lui-même, elle-même, on-même (himself, herself, their self)
vous-même (yourself, yourselves)
nous-même (ourselves)
ils-même, elles-même (themselves)

When the following verbs are used with preposition à in reference to people, a disjunctive pronoun is used. However when the preposition à is a thing y is used.

être à
faire attention à
s’habituer à
penser à
presenter à
tenir à
Credit: lingoni French

Possessive Pronouns

In French, possessive pronouns are used to replaces a possessive adjective and the noun being modified, and they are the equivalent to the English possessive pronouns mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, and theirs. The possessive pronoun agrees with the number and gender of the possessive adjective noun replaced, and not the possessor. Below is a table of the Possessive Pronouns.

Single PossessionPlural Possessions
minele mien (m)/ la mienne (f)les miens (m)/ les miennes (f)
yours (familiar)le tien (m)/ la tienne (f)les tiens (m)/ les tiennes (f)
yours (formal/>1 possessor)le vôtre (m)/ la vôtre (f)les vôtres (m & f)
his/hers/itsle sien (m)/ la sienne (f)les siens (m)/ les siennes (f)
oursle nôtre (m)/ la nôtre (f)les nôtres (m & f)
theirsle leur (m)/ la leur (f)les leurs (m & f)
  • Apportez votre déjeuner et le mien au bureau, s’il vous plait!
    • Bring yours and my lunch to the office, please!
  • J’ai vérifié ma valise et la vôtre.
    • I checked in my suitcase and yours.
  • Voici votre centrifuger et le nôtre
    • Here is your centrifuge and ours.

Two stems can be used, but they are context dependent. There is the il/ elle/ ce + être + à + disjunctive pronoun, this one is used when there is no comparison or contrast is implied. Possessive pronouns are used when comparisons are made.

  • Qui posséde cette vidéo? Elle est à moi.
    • Who owns this video? That is mine.
  • C’est ma vidéo? Non, c’est la mienne.
    • Is this my video? No, it’s mine.
Credit: Learn French With Pascal

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun, in English, this, one, that one, these, and those. They are used to replaces a demonstrative adjective and the noun it modifies, they agree both in gender and number with the noun being replaced. Below are the demonstrative pronoun forms.

SingularPlural
Masculineceluiceux
Femininecellecelles

Demonstrative pronouns are unable to stand by themselves, they must be accompanied with something you will see more below.

They can be accompanied by -ci or -là, where -ci is used to represet this one, and -là stands for that one or those. Where -là and -ci are also used to represent the former and the latter. -là is the former, and -ci is the latter.

You can also add a relative pronoun and a clause after using the demonstrative pronouns.

  • De tous les trains, je préfère celui qui est rapide.
    • Of all the trains, I prefer the fast one (the one that is fast).

It can also be used with de + noun: Voilà ma valise et celle de Andy. (There’s my suitcase and Andy’s.)

Ceci and Cela are demonstrative pronouns, which are referring to a concept or an idea. Ceci shows an idea that is to follow, and cela refers to something thats already been stated. Cela (ça) translates to this or that with the subject of a verb that is not être. For subjects of a the verb être, use ce (c’). (Ça is mainly used in spoken language, whereas cela is used more in written language)

Credit: Learn French With Alexa